Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Spread walnuts into a single layer on a small baking sheet. Roast for 5-10 minutes until fragrant and toasted, stirring halfway through. Let cool while you prepare the vinaigrette.
Make the Vinaigrette
In a small bowl, stir together shallots, 1 tablespoon vinegar, honey, salt, and pepper. Slowly drizzle in walnut oil, whisking, until emulsified.
Taste the dressing. If you like it to have a more tart flavor, add an additional 1 to 1-1/2 teaspoons vinegar. Season to taste with additional salt and pepper.
Assemble the Fig Salad
Cut stems from figs and slice in quarters if large and in half if small.
Toss baby arugula with the toasted walnuts and half of the vinaigrette. Arrange figs on the top of the salad and lightly drizzle each with a little of the remaining vinaigrette. Sprinkle the salad with crumbled goat cheese.
If desired, finish the salad with a few grinds of cracked black pepper and a few pinches of a medium-grind sea salt. Serve immediately.
Serving Variation: Crispy Prosciutto
For an extra layer of flavor and texture, this salad is also lovely topped with crisped prosciutto.To make it, preheat your oven to 350 degrees F with the rack in the middle position. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper or foil.Lay a few pieces of thinly-sliced prosciutto on the baking sheet in a single layer. Bake for 10-15 minutes, until prosciutto begins to crisp.Remove from oven and transfer to a wire rack to cool to room temperature (prosciutto will continue to crisp as it cools). Break into small pieces or crumbles and sprinkle over the salad.